The Life of Elon Musk

The Life of Elon Musk

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For Elon Musk, changing the world isn't enough. His ambitions are multiplanetary. The ultimate goal—to spread the seeds of humanity off Earth—theoretically improves the chances that our species will outlive extinction level events.

He's starting with Mars, targeting an uncrewed mission in 2026 and a crewed mission at the following launch window in 2028-29. If humans can overcome the great many technical challenges of surviving on Mars, the plan is to establish the first million-person city in short order.

It's an insane plan, with a host of unknowns. And it's all dependent on the success of Musk's private company, SpaceX, and its fleet of reusable Starships. This autonomous space rocket, designed to carry 100 people to Mars, has made one successful high altitude trip and is scheduled to make monthly orbital test trips throughout 2023.

"I'd like to die on Mars. Just not on impact." - Elon Musk

But how did Musk get to this point? How did he find the money for such extravagant space dreams? And how will it be affected by his $44 billion buyout of Twitter?


Elon's Early Life (1971-1989)

Elon was born in South Africa in 1971 to Errol, an electromechanical engineer, and Maye, a model and nutritional scientist. Elon grew up with his younger brother and sister, Kimbal and Toska, in the suburbs of Pretoria.

Being on the autism spectrum, Elon took to certain ideas obsessively. This gave him the ability to absorb lots of information about specialist subjects. But it also meant he found it hard to interpret the language, mindset, and social cues of other people.

"I would just tend to take things very literally... but then that turned out to be wrong. [People were not] simply saying exactly what they mean, there's all sorts of other things that are meant, and it took me a while to figure that out." - Elon Musk

When his parents divorced in 1979, Elon initially lived with his father and threw himself into computer programming. By age 12, he made a video game called Blastar and sold it to the magazine PC and Office Technology for $500.

Teenage Elon adored science fiction. He devoured Isaac Asimov's futuristic series, Foundation, and was deeply inspired by its message to prolong and advance civilisation. This kid dreamed big. Unfortunately, his love of humanity was seen as "not cool" by bullies who routinely attacked him, once throwing him down a flight of stairs and beating him unconscious.

Elon also suffered at the hands of his dad, who Maye Musk described as "physically, financially and emotionally manipulative and abusive". Though little is known about Errol Musk, he has spoken openly about killing three men during a home invasion, cheating on his wife, and having children his own step-daughter. Today, Elon and his dad are estranged.

"He's a terrible human being... Almost every evil thing you could possibly think of, he has done." - Elon Musk

Elon's Education (1989-1994)

After graduating high school, Elon escaped his homeland to spend a year working at a farm and lumber mill in Canada. According to his biography, he studied for two years in Ontario, then transferred to the University of Pennsylvania, graduating with degrees in Economics and Physics.

In 1994, Musk held two summer internships in Silicon Valley: one in an energy storage start-up, and another at a video games publisher. He then started a PhD in Applied Physics and Materials Science at Stanford University, but quit after two days to crack on with business.



Zip2 (1995-1999)

In 1995, Elon started a software company called Zip2 with his younger brother Kimbal. They developed an online city guide for the newspaper industry, providing interactive maps and business information. This was a decade before the release of Google Maps, when the internet was making its way into most homes.

But with $100,000 in student debt, Elon couldn't afford an apartment. So the brothers hired an office space in Palo Alto where they worked, ate, and slept. They had a single computer between them. The website was up during the day, and they coded and updated it at night.

"I found it rewarding to spend all night programming computers, just by myself... But I think that is not normal." - Elon Musk

Later, angel investors including Errol Musk contributed $200,000 to keep Zip2 afloat and ultimately help secure contracts with publishing giants like The New York Times. After four years, they sold sold Zip2 for $307 million, with Elon netting $22 million from the deal personally.

Time to buy a yacht and live the good life, no?

X.com (1999-2002)

After Zip2, Elon invested $10 million into his next start-up company, X.com, along with three other co-founders. It was an ambitious project to develop a secure e-payment system, and was one of the first online banks whose funds were federally insured. And it set the standard for his rollercoaster career:

  • 1999 - Musk ousted as CEO due to inexperience
  • 2000 - X.com merges with Confinity (PayPal)
  • 2000 - Musk returns as CEO
  • 2000 - Musk ousted again; replaced by Thiel
  • 2002 - eBay buyout for $1.5 billion in stock

As the largest shareholder of PayPal, Elon received more than $100 million. With the beauty of hindsight, we might say that his software companies were experiments in making money, of which he would need a great deal to go to space. And that's exactly where we go next.


SpaceX (2002-Present)

Enter Space Exploration Technologies Corp, or SpaceX, whose name can't be said without inducing unconscious thoughts of low-gravity lovemaking.

Musk founded SpaceX in 2002 with the goal of designing, building, and operating reusable space rockets. He saw single-use rockets as a non-starter for a multiplanetary civilisation, and set his mind to reducing the cost of shooting people into space.

Finally, Elon could do what he'd always dreamed of. He starting making space rockets—and that's when the real challenges began.

SpaceX rocket comparison: Starship, Saturn V, Falcon Heavy, Space Shuttle, Boeing 747

The 747 (Boeing, 1969), Space Shuttle (NASA, 1981), Falcon Heavy (SpaceX, 2013), Saturn V (NASA, 1966), and the Starship (SpaceX, 2021).

Musk declared 2008 as the worst year of his life. Three test launches of his debut rocket, the Falcon, exploded before reaching orbit. For SpaceX to continue, it was essential to log a successful test flight. Yet time after time, the rocket failed.

Engineering woes ruined Musk financially and emotionally. He was woke from nightmares screaming and was in physical pain from the stress. Meanwhile, fresh out of a divorce from the mother of his five children, all three of his tech companies—SpaceX, Tesla, and SolarCity—were on the verge of bankruptcy.

"Always bear in mind that entropy is not on your side." - Elon Musk

Relief came when a fourth launch saw the Falcon make a successful round-trip to orbit, 480km above Earth. Confidence was restored. SpaceX began developing larger orbital rockets, and NASA locked down the Dragon spacecraft to ferry astronauts to and from the International Space Station.

In 2019, Falcon rockets began putting Starlinks in orbit. There are now more than 3,000 Starlink satellites in low Earth orbit, providing internet coverage to 40 countries. SpaceX plans to deploy 12,000 satellites in the near term, generating $30 billion in revenue by 2025.



SpaceX has also developed the Starship. At 120m tall when stacked and fuelled, it's another reusable rocket that will take the first wave of humans to Mars. The Starship made its first autonomous launch in 2020. It reached a target altitude of 12.5km, made a perfectly controlled descent... and crashed due to lack of thrust on the landing burn.

This was the first of four Starships to make a Rapid Unscheduled Disassembly, or RUD, which is the polite way of saying they exploded into bits. It was the Starship SN15 that made the first successful flight in 2021, flying to an altitude of 10km, and returning to the South Texas test site intact.



The Starship is scheduled to make its first orbital flight in December 2022. Elon expects it to fail, perhaps spectacularly, as the rocketship breaks new ground. Monthly test flights thereafter will help SpaceX refine the Starship and move real payloads sometime in 2023.

In 2024, the Starship will take people to the Moon as part of NASA's Artemis program, in which NASA plans to build a base camp on the surface, as well as a Gateway depot in lunar orbit. The Moon project is built with three goals in mind: scientific discovery, economic payoff through helium mining, and inspiration for the next generation of astronauts.

That's a wild thought. and just as we're getting our heads around a dozen astronauts poking around on Mars, Elon Musk is planning to seed the alien planet with a permanent, self-sustaining population.

"Excluding organic growth [that's babies on Mars], if you could take 100 people at a time, you would need 10,000 trips to get to a million people." - Elon Musk

He further elaborated that 10,000 trips excludes cargo to support those colonists: with cargo, it would take at least 100,000 Starship trips to Mars to set up a million-person city. If you're wondering whether life on Mars is even an option, check out my article: Can We Live on Mars?

The first city on Mars will be a self-sustaining network of industrial and residential buildings

The first city on Mars will be a self-sustaining network of industrial and residential buildings.


Tesla (2004-Present)

Let's back-up a little to discover Musk's parallel venture into electric cars and autonomous vehicle technology. In 2004, he invested $6.5 million in Tesla and took a lead role in the architecture of electric vehicles.

Year Model
2008 Roadster
2012 Model S
2015 Model X
2017 Model 3
2017 Tesla Semi
2020 Model Y
2023 Cybertruck

The EV line-up saw Tesla valued at more than $1 trillion in 2021.

To speed up the global transition to electric cars, Tesla sells its electric powertrain components and has opened up the patents to other car manufacturers. The goal is to break our addiction with petrol-guzzling autos, with Musk strongly in favour of a tax on carbon dioxide emissions.

Then there's the autonomous vehicle technology, designed to improve safety and efficiency on roads by handing the driving over to computers. Tesla cars have 8 external cameras that provide 360-degree visibility up to 250 metres away, plus 12 ultrasonic sensors that detect both hard objects (streetlights) and soft objects (people). The real-time data is processed by a deep neural network.

"Autopilot is a good thing to have in planes, and we should have it in cars." - Elon Musk
Tesla Autopilot uses 8 cameras, 12 ultrasonic sensors, and one radar for 360-degree visibility up to 250 metres in range

The 8 cameras and 12 sensors used in Tesla's autonomous vehicles. Unlike its rivals, Tesla doesn't use lidar (laser sensors) or high-definition maps.

To date, the Autopilot system operates on highways only, while the Full Self-Driving system can be run semi-autonomously on city streets and residential areas. In other words, Tesla cars drive themselves, but still make mistakes. Drivers must be ready to step in at any moment.

Eventually, FSD will reach Level 5 autonomy, such that all Teslas will be able to drive anywhere, under any conditions, without human supervision. The Dojo supercomputer, which trains up the neural network faster than in the real world, could help Tesla deliver Level 5 FSD in 2023, although Musk is notoriously ambitious when setting deadlines.

Tesla's latest Q4 2021 safety analysis shows comparison crash rates of:

  • All vehicles (manual driver): 1 per 484,000 miles
  • Tesla vehicles (manual driver): 1 per 1,590,000 miles
  • Tesla vehicles (autopilot driver): 1 per 4,310,000 miles

While this is extremely promising data, we should recognise confounding variables such as the seasonality of crash rates, Autopilot crashes avoided by human intervention, and Autopilot's restriction to highways.



The transition to autonomous driving has attracted its critics. Yet Musk insists the overarching logic is sound. Human error is involved in 94% of serious crashes, killing 1.3 million people worldwide every year. These are violent, sudden deaths and we'd do well to try to address that.

In terms of efficiency, Elon looks to a time when all cars are fully autonomous and communicate with each other in real-time for superior safety, at faster speeds, all but eliminating traffic.


Neuralink (2016-Present)

One day, Elon decided to team up with eight experts in neuroscience, biochemistry, and robotics to create Neuralink. The goal? To develop more sophisticated brain implants that will ultimately have therapeutic, cognitive, and recreational applications.

Why would Musk want to put computers in our brains? Consider that brain cells communicate in tiny bursts of electricity. A neural implant adds artificial neurons to the conversation, relaying data to and from an external computer. It would have a profound impact, not only on how we control technology, but how we think, feel, and behave.

The Link BMI by Neuralink

The Link BMI described in Neuralink's 2019 whitepaper.

The long term goal of Neuralink is to offer the Link to everyone, ultimately creating a human-AI symbiosis. The scope of artificial intelligence is broadening, and when it surpasses human intelligence, it won't even need our input to evolve. It will run our stock markets, our social calendars, and our doctor appointments. It will tell us what to study, who to marry, and when to have babies.

There's no knowing what the AI will want for itself. So rather than compete with this powerful synthetic lifeform, we actually need to merge with it. Today's Neuralink is a starting point for a high-bandwidth BMI that will allow us to control AI—before it controls us.

"We can actually go along for the ride... and we can effectively have the option of merging with AI." - Elon Musk

Read my full Neuralink explainer about the potential benefits, risks, and societal impacts of this wild future tech.


Love, Life, and Everything Else

As a self-confessed workaholic known to push 120-hour work weeks, Musk doesn't really do spare time. But he has squeezed in a number of relationships and had more kids than most.

Elon met his first wife, Justine Wilson, at university in Canada. They married in 2000, when Musk took a trip home to South Africa, contracted malaria, and almost died. Two years later, the couple had their first child, Nevada, only to suffer the profound tragedy of losing him to SIDS at 10 weeks old. They went on to use IVF to conceive twins (Vivian and Griffin) in 2004 and triplets (Kai, Saxon, and Damian) in 2006.

Elon and Justine divorced in 2008, after which he twice married and divorced the English actress Talulah Riley. For a brief time he had the great misfortune of dating Amber Heard. In 2018, he settled down with the singer Grimes, aka Claire Boucher, and they had a son named X (2020) and a daughter named Y (2022). However, it was later revealed Musk also got busy with Neuralink director, Shivon Zilis, to have twins (2021).

So Musk has 10 children in the public eye. True to his actions, he assures us one of the biggest threats to civilisation is a population crash. Birth rates are declining globally and we aren't making enough people to labour and innovate in future.



Beyond family planning, Musk has strong views on climate change, universal basic income, the existence of aliens, the dangers of artificial intelligence, and the likelihood that we're all living in a digital simulation.

"The strongest argument for us probably being in a simulation I think is the following: 40 years ago we had Pong—two rectangles and a dot. That's where we were. Now 40 years later we have photorealistic, 3D simulations with millions of people playing simultaneously and it's getting better every year. And soon we'll have virtual reality, we'll have augmented reality. If you assume any rate of improvement at all, then the games will become indistinguishable from reality, just indistinguishable." - Elon Musk

He's referring to the Simulation Argument, a case put forward by the philosopher Nick Bostrom. It hangs on the idea that if advanced simulation technology is possible, then we're already living in it. The chance that we're living in the real world vs one of countless simulations is next to zero.

Now a thing about money. During the pandemic, Musk's net worth rose from $27 billion to $243 billion, making him the richest person in the world. Most of this came from the rising value of Tesla stock, which saw him make $295 million per day over two years.

However, the value of Tesla shares have since plummeted, driven in large part by the CEO alleviating himself of company ownership: Elon sold $22 billion in 2021 to pay tax bills, and $20 billion in 2022 to fund his buyout of Twitter. His remaining stake in Tesla is now leverage for bank loans, such that if Twitter can't service its new debt of $13 billion, Musk will lose a chunk of his remaining stake in Tesla. No pressure.

Elon Musk has got his fair share of critics. He's certainly not making any friends at Twitter. He's an aggressive businessman, a ruthless boss, and a billionaire who has it all. Plus, he's autistic, which makes him present in such a way as to win little empathy from strangers.

Yet when you look at the motivation, there's one thing driving all the crazy: to see humanity thrive. It's not about money. It's about making big stuff happen. Love him or loathe him, you can't argue with Elon Musk's long game of sustaining the human species.

"To anyone I've offended, I reinvented electric cars and I'm sending people to Mars in a rocket ship. Did you think I was going to be a chill, normal dude?" - Elon Musk
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Rebecca Casale is a science writer and editor based in Auckland, New Zealand. If you like her content, please share it with your friends. If you don't like it, why not punish your enemies by sharing it with them?